Every weight-loss program requires a better lifestyle ; but « move more” and “eat better” are not enough, and “eat less” is also crucial… and generally experienced badly. Craving and frustrations due to hypocaloric diets can have a negative impact on the best resolutions and most motivated people – all the more so as they require long-term efforts: losing weight is more like a marathon than a sprint!!
Appetite regulation through satiety feeling control is an important lever in weight management, by bringing comfort, of course, but not only that: Sumithran & al. (1) demonstrated than in a group of people who followed a very strict 8-week hypocaloric diet, levels of different appetite mediators (including ghrelin, the hunger hormone) were strongly affected, even one year after the end of the diet: a survival strategy from the body which tends to recharge its reserves!
Following a hypocaloric diet generates major changes in our metabolism, and a long-term hormonal management can be useful in fighting against the “yo-yo effect” of dieting and then allowing durable weight-loss.
CravingZ’Gone® : mechanism of action
CravingZ’Gone® was launched by Olygose in 2015. It is very rich in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), non-digestible soluble fibers well-known for their prebiotic activity. In contrast with insoluble fibers, commonly used in weight-loss food supplements, Olygose’s αGOS do not “fill” the stomach but act on complex metabolic mechanisms by modulating intestinal flora: microbiota stimulates the synthesis of short chain fatty acids, activating a signaling cascade allowing brain control of satiety. This mechanism involves a pool of hormones like ghrelin, leptin, and peptides such as PYY and GLP-1
Figure 1: CravingZ'Gone®'s mechanism of action
The ingredient efficiency was primarily tested in a controlled animal study where mice, following a hyperlipidic diet were supplemented, or not with CravingZ’Gone®.
Ghrelin was measured, while fasting and in post-prandial phase: in both cases the study showed very significant differences between the 2 groups (40 to 50%).
Figure 2: Mice plasmatic ghrelin levels, post prandial or fasting, supplemented with CravingZ'Gone® or a placebo
Olygose then completed 2 double-blind, vs placebo human studies to evaluate the impact of CravingZ’Gone® supplementation on appetite (2).
In each trial, 4 groups of 22 overweight adults were supplemented with different α-GOS doses or formulations, for 14 days, without following any hypocaloric diet. Appetite scores were then evaluated on a VAS scale during a test-meal. After 14 days:
- Appetite was decreased
- Daily caloric intake was also reduced
Results were statistically significant from 6g/day; with an optimum dose, evaluated for a 12g/day supplementation, the product also impacts weight and fat mass.
These results were published in July 2015 in the Journal of Nutrition – cf figure 3 & 4
Figures 3 & 4: VAS Score and dose dependance response in adults supplemented with CravingZ'Gone® (2)
A third clinical study was completed in 2014-2015, in partnership with the La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Nutrition and Cardio-metabolism Institute (ICAN). This 12-week, controlled, randomized trial was conducted on 2 groups of 50 people (one group supplemented with 12g/day of CravingZ’Gone®, the other one receiving a placebo). It confirmed some of the results previously obtained:
- Satiety and fullness : in the CravingZ’Gone® group, comfort was maintained and even enhanced in comparison with the baseline.
- Daily caloric intake : supplementation with CravingZ’Gone® allowed an additional 50% reduction of caloric intake in comparison with the placebo group.
Thus this study confirmed the possibility of a long-term effect of CravingZ’Gone® in appetite control – cf figures 5 & 6 .
a: baseline; b: placebo group; c: group supplemented with CravingZ'Gone®
Beyond weight management
Global health benefits due to rich-in-fibers diets are now very well known. Rich in soluble, fermentable fibers, CravingZ’Gone® also offers additional benefits :
Bifidogenic potential of α-GOS was evaluated in vitro as well as in clinical studies, on infants, standard and obese adults flora. Everytime, bifidobacteria populations grew, in value as well as in proportion of total microbiota – cf figure 7. These bacteria, belonging to the lactic bacteria family, are considered as beneficial for humans, in particular because of their capacity to regulate infections.
Figure 7: Impact of CravingZ'Gone in levels of bifidobacteria in adults (2)
Impact on metabolic syndrom markers
Beside appetite control, supplementation with CravingZ’Gone® leads to a diminution of plasmatic levels of both bacterian endotoxins (LPS) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP). LPS and CRP are markers of mild inflammation associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance (Type II diabet).
(1) Sumithran P et al, Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss, New England Journal of Medicine, 2011; 365:1597-604
(2) Morel F et al, α-Galacto-oligosaccharides dose-dependently reduce appetite and decrease inflammation in overweight Adults, The Journal of Nutrition, 2015; 145 : 2052-9
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